Model characteristics of functional abilities in taekwondo

This paper I would like to start with the question: “Can scientific knowledge find its place in the sports preparation and should it?” The answer to both is, yes!

When we properly interpret the results of scientific studies and properly apply the concepts we can increase the level of athlete capabilities.

This paper will show functional parameters that we obtained by performing tests on eight practitioners of taekwondo who met the selection criteria and were eligible to compete for the junior national team. Testing was conducted at the end of the competition period when the athletes are still at a higher level of training. It is safe to say that the results can be used as a reference to monitor training level and planning for sports training.


Testing protocol

Before testing, all individuals had to attend measurements to determine body composition, using body composition and spirometer test to exclude the possibility of obstruction of the airways.

After the spirometric screening, followed by determination of the concentration of lactate in the blood at rest, subjects starting with individual warm up. Physiological characteristics, including maximum oxygen uptake, were measured ergo-spirometric system Cosmed Quark CPET during a continuous progressive test on the treadmill (KF1). Testing begins at a speed of 5 km / h and progressively increases every 30 seconds for 0.5 km / h, and until runs to failure.

After the respondent can no longer continue testing, he stops running on the treadmill and continues to walk for one minute. After one minute another blood sample was taken to determine the concentration of lactate in the blood after exhaustion. The continuous progressive test we obtained data on ventilation and spirometric parameters, and biochemical parameters such as the concentration of lactate in the blood.



Table one shows average values of physiological and biochemical parameters, as well as endurance in the anaerobic zone

Test results
RVO2 max

62,23±7,58 ml/min/kg


201±7,62 o/min


16,12±1,21 km/h

Lactates in resting period

1,37±0,34 mmol/l

Lactates 1 min. after failure

11,4±1,35 mmol/l

Endurance in anaerobic zone

3,81±0,84 min


Table two shows the average value of physiological parameters at anaerobic threshold

Test results
RVO2 anp

52,91±5,46 ml/min/kg


186,12±9,71 o/min


3,81±0,84 min



What are model characteristics?

Model characteristics are testing results of top athletes in the core and specific indicators of training and indicators of situational efficiency (Milanovic, 2009).

Now we finally have tangible value that can we can use during the of training athletes, and when planning and programming for sports training. By applying these results and their comparison with the results achieved by our athletes, errors in control of training, the planning and scheduling of sports training, and errors in determining the load of training volume will be at a minimum.

I am aware that for the implementation of this testing requires a certain technical and material resources and support. There are a number of field tests that may not be as precise, but they are cheaper and easier to implement and can provide us with useful information. Excellent alternative test to the continuous progressive test on a treadmill is the Conconi test at the track, but this test requires some experience timekeepers, or as well as the ability to implement the Conconi test in the gym on the treadmill using the running computer. The simplest version is the beep test with heart rate monitoring.

Depending on the results of athletes on the beep test using the orientation table results, we can read an oxygen uptake of athletes. In a very simple and quick way, we can determine heart rate curve while we read from the approximate table values of oxygen. Also, we have information and results that we can compare with the model characteristics and which we can use in planning and programming of sports training and control of training athletes.

Also, we should point out some other tests for the assessment of anaerobic capacity and speed endurance athletes such as 300m and test RAST test (Running Anaerobic Sprint Test).

What does all this mean to coaches and athletes?

Using these tests and their results, we no longer have to make conclusions based on coincidence. Coaches are creators of sports preparation for athletes and as such they must establish and maintain control over their sports training they spend with their athletes. Someone might declare: “So what, I don’t apply any of these tests, and I still have results …” However, their results could always be better!



Test results are a base for planning and control of training process. In this paper, variables that were presented could be used as a reference for planning and monitoring of training process with a final goal to achieve the highest level of sports preparation and results on the competitive level.