Coach plans and programs for sports training, conducted training processes and, if necessary, adjustment of the training carried out depending on the period and the state of training of athletes and athletes reactions to the planned contents, methods and workload. On the other hand, we have the athletes whose approach to the implementation of the training process, this whole story rises to a higher level. So we have the coaches and athletes who have a common goal, to achieve the desired result.
Through joint work and efforts over a certain period of time, we have reached a high level of training showed that we are competitive, jumped from the crowd of average athletes and we have achieved a notable result. In short, we have become members of the family of elite athletes … and what now? The fierce competition is not for bad prepared athletes, the differences are small, nuances decide. Each athlete had to meet strict selection criteria for participation in a major event.
So why then the winner can be only one? What is the reason, or several reasons why an athlete “pops” when compared to other high-ranking athletes? In a sport often choose shades and it is precisely these shades often make the difference between winners and losers! There are many factors that affect the performance in any sport, from health status, via a motor and functional abilities, morphological characteristics, cognitive and conative abilities, to the specific and situational abilities of athletes. I would like in this article, in which we talk about the rationalization of energy consumption, as one very often a determining factor in the performance of competitive activity, your thoughts directed towards motor skills, specifically the durability.
Endurance is the easiest and easier to explain as athlete’s ability to maintain its ability to work over a long period of time. We have several forms of endurance, so we have a general endurance, specific endurance, speed endurance, strength endurance and speed-strength endurance.
I would not linger here to the definition and explanation of all forms of endurance, at the present time is not a problem to get the information that interest us and separates us “one click away” from them. Here I am interested in some other things when it comes to endurance, I’m interested in the factors of endurance and that is the reason that one of the two equally prepared fitness athletes win while others lose. What shade it might be when deciding between defeat or victory? Before we continue to deal with these thoughts would not be bad to repeat some of the basics when it comes to energy capacity.
Basics of energy capacity
There are two types of power capacity, aerobic from which the energy to work on moving in the presence of oxygen and anaerobic in which the energy provided in the absence of oxygen. The energy needed for operation is ensured by resynthesis of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), we have already stated that this is done in the form of two types of chemical reactions, aerobic and anaerobic. ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is a molecule that cells directly provides energy to run. ATP is the main and only source of energy that cells can be used immediately. Substances that release energy, e.g., Glucose can be degraded by the absence of oxygen aerobic (oxidative) and anaerobic (antioxidant). Exactly in this a division based energy capacity. To ATP station could provide energy, ATP is the action of enzymes divided into adenosine diphosphate and inorganic phosphagen (ATP → ADP + PO 4 + E).
The amount of ATP is limited and the intense activity rapidly consumed (up to 2 sec.). However ATP is quickly renewed energy that is released during the anaerobic degradation of another phosphate compound sarcoplasm, and it is a creatine phosphate (CP). Since both sources phosphagen, they at a maximum activity can provide energy 10 – 20 seconds, until further intensive activity uses energy that can provide an anaerobic decomposition of glucose through a chemical process called glycolysis. It allows resynthesis of ATP and CP, but without the metabolite produced lactic acid, which impairs acid-base balance of the intercellular fluid and blood, as well as the overall homeostasis and forces the body to reduce the intensity of activity or activity that completely terminated. Activity in anaerobic glycolytic energy capacity takes on average 60 – 90 seconds.
The anaerobic energy capacity takes on the role of raising the energy regarding high-intensity activities at which aerobic energy capacity due to its inertia is not capable enough to quickly provide the energy needed to operate. At lower intensity activities where you do not exceed the capabilities of the system to transport oxygen, energy is released in the muscle cells in the mitochondria of sugar, fat, and protein in the absence of oxygen. Aerobic processes, the processes of Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation, produces CO2 and water, and the energy released is used for the synthesis of ATP and CP, and for the oxidation of lactic acid. In general endurance activities, there are two factors that limit the total capacity, namely the anaerobic threshold and muscle glycogen depot.
Anaerobic threshold → refers to the intensity of activity where the processes activated by aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis mechanism whereby the concentration of lactate (LA) does not exceed 4 mmol / l blood. When the pass ANP leads to significant accumulation of lactate and then speaking of anaerobic energy capacity.
Glycogen depot → when the activities of the aerobic type of duration 60 – 90 minutes glycogen reserves athletes are generally sufficient. However, the continuation of activities is achievable only if the compensation amount of glycogen (glucose polymer) in the body by taking energy drinks or gels during activity.
I have already mentioned that the major event, for example, the Olympic Games no untrained athletes. All the athletes level of training is at a high level, and yet only one will emerge as the winner. Besides the fitness levels of athletes, should draw attention to the appropriate technical and tactical preparedness of athletes, because in this way can provide a specific cost-performance motion structures selected sports and thus rationally spend your energy. In line with this last sentence, we will open the story of endurance factors.
According to Zeljaskov, 2003., we have two factors endurance.
- Bioenergy factors → refers to the aerobic and anaerobic energy capacity
- Sports – technical factors
Energy capacities and mechanisms of raising the energy to work I explained, so I’d be here kept on sports – technical factors.
Each sport has its own requirements and peculiarities, its movement structure (technique) and the structure of the situation (tactics). When it comes to endurance, exactly in sports – technical factors that we can look for a shade that will allow us to make a step forward compared to the competition.
When an athlete has reached a high level of fitness levels and further development at the expense of fitness feature is no longer possible because the athlete has reached capacity and capability of your own body, followed by further detailing and “grinding” technique and tactics of a certain sport. Right here, lies a factor of conservation of energy as well as creating a good foundation for the reach small, but crucial “nuances” that will decide the winner in the category of best (elite) athletes.
Sports – technical factor → one of the basic requirement for enhancing the level of a specific endurance athlete, is an economical use of energy resources, and increase the coefficient of efficiency of muscular work in the specific conditions of motor activity (Zeljaskov, 2003). Therefore, we should emphasize the importance of optimal performance structure movement from the biomechanical point of view, in accordance with the rules of the chosen sport, not only when we talk about energy conservation, but on the prevention of injury.
Search for the optimum and its equivalent in living systems with a limited flow of energy is expressed in so-called, “principle of maximizing”, i.e.,, such a mode that will allow maximum performance with minimum energy consumption (Željaskov, 2003).
Surely that is the achievement of sports results woven a large number of factors that affect the efficiency and success in sports. When an athlete has reached a high level of fitness, sure that quality and correct biomechanical performance of structures motion of the selected sports, we can achieve a positive impact on the prevention of injury and achieve maximum efficiency in the performance of activities with minimum energy consumption. There lies the nuance, this little step that makes the difference between winners and losers.