At the very beginning of the season and entering the preparation period, athletes start with sports preparation for the upcoming competition. The preparation period is an integral part of the annual cycle of training and competition with the transitional period makes the structure of each annual cycle training. For these periods should be seen as a meaningful whole, but I will in this article try to put little emphasis on the preparation time. Some may wonder, why only the preparatory period? I agree, each stage is important and has its place when it comes to sports training. But I’ll put it this way, what we “plant” in preparation period, the “fruits” of the work we gather in the competitive period, which are the most important when it comes to achieving competitive results.
Each period has its peculiarities and requirements that depend on a chosen sport, but also the periodization of the annual cycle of training. It is a preparatory period tasked to bring athletes to a level of training that will allow them to be able to meet all the requirements issued by the competition period and to actualize fully their potential and achieve the planned tasks and objectives. For the duration of the preparatory period, we are to achieve anatomical adaptation of the athlete’s body and improve all essential motor and functional abilities, all with the goal of achieving optimal sports form in competition period and avoiding the appearance of injuries in our athletes.
But before further developing the capabilities of an athlete, primarily the speed and power, we have to remove something that interferes with the performance of fast and explosive movements. We need to remove the fat! It is in the context of the reduction of subcutaneous fat; preparation period has a particular emphasis. Trainers know that too much body fat is a ballast weight and adverse effect on the expression of speed and power. What is it exactly fat and how it interferes with the performance so critical motor skills, such as speed and power.
Adipose tissue we can divide the subcutaneous fat, located beneath the skin and the visceral fat that surrounds internal organs. We will be here to deal with subcutaneous fat tissue. In men, the quantity of fat in the body is between 8-15% of total body weight (optimal value), whereas in women, and the values are between 20-25% (optimal value). Too much body fat can reduce the athlete’s performance. However be too little body fat is not good, because fat is a storehouse of energy during physical activity, especially after high-intensity activities such as fund-raising required energy in a resting state, and achieving faster recovery in athletes. What is the optimal amount of fat in the body depends on the individual characteristics of athletes and, therefore, the requirements of the sport with which the athlete does?
For example, I can cite at marathon athletes amount of body fat is around 3-5%, but this is due to the actual requirements of the sport, which is also accompanied by a special diet and supplementation.
Trainers can use several methods for determining the composition of the body athletes, such as hydrostatic weighing, taking measures of skin folds with calipers help in certain parts of the body, the sport is due to its simplicity, speed and reliability are commonly used body composition analyzers that are based on bioelectrical impedance. Aerobic endurance training brings a lot of benefits that we achieve the appearance of positive change in athletes. It should be noted one of these changes, and that is the increased activity of oxidative enzymes and increased oxidation of intramuscular triglycerides. We know that the amount of glycogen in the body is limited, and just by increasing the oxidation of free fatty-acids can lead to conservation of glycogen needed by high-performance intensive activities.
Fat oxidation during exercise depends on the intensity, duration, and level of physical conditioning of athletes. As for the extensiveness, in the first 60 ‘of moderate intensity are spent intramuscular triglycerides, and after 60’ plasma triglycerides. The intensity of which a maximum of oxidation at 64% VO2max or 74% practice (approximate value).
If we consider the real extent and the intensity at which fat oxidation increased, appropriate training methods would be continuous and continuously variable standard ways in the extensive-intensive area of work to anaerobic threshold. However, we can in some conditions apply and interval training methods, depending on our needs and desires of athletes. Should be considered that the anaerobic post-activation causes the oxidation of fats, as well as the training load (70% of 1RM, 3x10rep., 45 ‘) where there were an increased oxidation and 2 hours after exercise.
In the end, we can summarize that for the oxidation of fats should be carried out 3-5 sessions per week, moderate intensity (55-65% VO2max) in extensity> 60 ‘. The real solution proved to be aerobic training combined with external load training. Thus, the first practice of the day we can reserve for aerobic facilities and the second training we will reserve for strength training or intense anaerobic training. Of course, selection of content, methods as well as the dosage of the load depends on the operating programming training, but also the periodization of the macrocycle of training.